Better be safe than sorry: Economic optimization risks tipping of Earth system elements

Optimizing economic welfare without constraints might put human well-being at risk, a new climate study argues. While being successful in bringing down costs of greenhouse gas reductions for instance, the concept of profit maximization alone does not suffice to avoid the tipping of critical elements in the Earth system which could lead to dramatic changes of our lifelihood. The scientists use mathematical experiments to compare economic optimization to the governance concepts of sustainability and the more recent approach of a safe operating space for humanity. All of these turn out to have their benefits and deficits, yet the profit-maximizing approach shows the greatest likelihood of producing outcomes that harm people or the environment.
Source: Science Daily

Scientists discover ancient interstellar dust that formed the Earth and the solar system

Scientists have discovered some of the original interstellar dust that formed the Earth and the Solar System billions of years ago. The discovery is the “surviving pre-solar interstellar dust that formed the very building blocks of planets and stars,” said study lead author Hope Ishii.

     

 

 


Source: USA Today

Okinawa: Why World War II's Last Great Battle Was Hell on Earth

Okinawa: Why World War II's Last Great Battle Was Hell on EarthTo the Americans, Okinawa represented a major stepping-stone toward the final defeat of the Japanese Empire. The successful occupation of the island by American forces would provide air bases and naval facilities that would allow for attacks on the Home Islands themselves. Okinawa is the largest and most densely populated island in the Ryukyu chain, some 380 miles southwest of the Japanese Home Island of Kyushu.


Source: Yahoo! News