How our immune system detects broken DNA

Our immune system can detect when our own cells are damaged. This DNA damage can come from a variety of sources, such as the sun’s UV rays, chemical agents like cigarette smoke, or from genotoxic drugs used in chemotherapy. A new study found that DNA damage can lead to an immune response similar to that observed during viral infection.
Source: Science Daily

HIV RNA expression inhibitors may restore immune function in HIV-infected individuals

Immune activation and inflammation persist in the majority of treated HIV-infected individuals and is associated with excess risk of mortality and morbidity. A new study suggests that use of HIV RNA expression inhibitors as adjunct therapy might diminish atypical inflammation and restore immune function in HIV-infected individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).
Source: Science Daily

Gut's 'taste buds' help school the immune system in the thymus

Researchers were recently surprised to discover fully formed gut and skin cells in the thymus, a lemon-sized organ that sits in front of the heart and is responsible for training the T cells of the immune system not to attack the body’s own tissues. The finding, based on studies conducted in mice, could lead to better understanding of the drivers of autoimmune problems in humans, the authors say.
Source: Science Daily

Immune discovery should help develop improved vaccines for infants and newborns

Specific immune danger signals are highly efficient in triggering immune responses in infants and newborns, whose immune systems function very differently to those of adults. The scientists believe their discovery could reduce both the age at which vaccines can be first administered, and the need for multiple booster shots.
Source: Science Daily

Immune discovery should help develop improved vaccines for infants and newborns

Specific immune danger signals are highly efficient in triggering immune responses in infants and newborns, whose immune systems function very differently to those of adults. The scientists believe their discovery could reduce both the age at which vaccines can be first administered, and the need for multiple booster shots.
Source: Science Daily

Resistance to prostate-cancer treatment is driven by immune cells

Resistance to prostate-cancer treatment is driven by immune cells

Resistance to prostate-cancer treatment is driven by immune cells, Published online: 27 June 2018; doi:10.1038/d41586-018-05460-y

Prostate-cancer treatment usually fails after time as resistance to therapy develops. It emerges from studies of mice and human cells that a population of immune cells can cause this type of treatment resistance.
Source: Nature

Threat of malaria left its mark on the immune system in people with African ancestry

Researchers have identified a genetic difference between people with African and European ancestry that affects how the immune system triggers inflammation. They suspect these differences are rooted in how the immune system evolved and the evolutionary pressure exerted by malaria on ancestors who lived in Africa.
Source: Science Daily

Biomaterial particles educate immune system to accept transplanted islets

By instructing key immune system cells to accept transplanted insulin-producing islets, researchers have opened a potentially new pathway for treating type 1 diabetes. If the approach is ultimately successful in humans, it could allow type 1 diabetes to be treated without the long-term complications of immune system suppression.
Source: Science Daily

Deep space radiation treatment reboots brain's immune system

NASA and private company SpaceX plan to send humans to Mars within the next 15 years — but need to figure out how to protect astronauts from the dangerous cosmic radiation of deep space. Now neuroscientists have identified a potential treatment for the brain damage caused by cosmic rays — a drug that prevents memory impairment in mice exposed to simulated space radiation.
Source: Science Daily